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​The Impact of Migration in the Philippines: What About Those Left Behind?

More than half of the Philippine population has experienced moving either within the country or abroad. While most have seen the benefits of migration, particularly the increase of household income through remittances, not much emphasis has been given on those they left behind. Using a Difference-in-Differences (DiD) approach in the 2018 National Migration Survey (NMS), this paper finds that migration has a negative impact on the percentage of school-aged household members studying from 2013-2018. Interestingly, further investigation shows that the negative impact of migration is more pronounced in households with a female migrant than those with a male migrant.


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