LATEST PUBLICATIONS
PN 2022-02
How Can DSWD's Social Pension Program for Indigent Senior Citizens be Improved?
RPS 2022-01
How Does the Philippines Fare in Meeting the ASEAN Economic Community Vision 2025?
PJD 2022 Vol. 46 No. 1d
Surveying the Extent and Wage Consequences of Education-Job Mismatches in the Philippine Labor Market
PJD 2022 Vol. 46 No. 1c
Disentangling the Effects of Maternal Employment on Child Stunting in the Philippines

LATEST AV MATERIALS
PIDS WB 2021-1201
Analyzing the President's Budget for 2022
GIZ-FFS-2020-01
WASHaLOT 3.0: Production Process
GIZ-FFS-2021-03
WASHaLOT 3.0 Mass Production
GIZ-FFS-2021-02
Minimum Requirement Guidelines on WASH in Schools
Publication Detail
WPS 2031: Addressing the education puzzle : the distribution of education and economic reform

No country has achieved sustained economic development without substantially investing in human capital. Previous studies have shown the handsome returns to various forms of basic education, research, training, learning-by-doing, and capacity-building. But education by itself does not guarantee successful development, as history has shown in the former Soviet bloc, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and the Indian states of Kerala and West Bengal. The question is, when and how does education bring high payoffs? Although theory has suggested a strong causal link between education and growth, the empirical evidence has not been unanimous and conclusive. The authors examine two explanatory factors. First, who gets educated matters a good deal, but the distribution of education is complex and not much has been written about it. They construct an asset allocation model that elucidates the importance of the distribution of education to economic development. Second, how education affects growth is greatly affected by the economic policy environment. Policies determine what people can do with their education. Reform of trade, investment, and labor policies can increase the returns from education. Using panel data from 12 Asian and Latin American countries for 1970-94, they investigate the relationship between education, policy reform, and economic growth. Their empirical results are promising. First, the distribution of education matters. Unequal distribution of education tends to have a negative impact on per capita income in most countries. Moreover, controlling for human capital distribution and the use of appropriate functional form specifications consistent with the asset allocation model makes a difference for the effect of average schooling on per capita income. Controlling for education distribution leads to positive and significant effects of average schooling on per capita income, while failure to do so leads to insignificant, even negative effects, of average education. Second, the policy environment matters a great deal. Our results indicate that economic policies that suppress market forces tend to dramatically reduce the impact of human capital on economic growth. Investment in human capital can have little impact on growth unless people can use education in competitive and open markets. The larger and more competitive these markets are, the greater are the prospects for using education and skills.

World Bank
Authors Keywords
Lopez, Ramon; Thomas, Vinod; Yan Wang; education; human resource development; human capital;
Download PDF Number of Downloads
Published in 0 and available for Downloaded 303 times since November 25, 2011
×
Please let us know your reason for downloading this publication. May we also ask you to provide additional information that will help us serve you better? Rest assured that your answers will not be shared with any outside parties. It will take you only two minutes to complete the survey. You will answer the profile questions only once as long as you enter the same email address. Thank you.


To use as reference:
If others, (Please specify):
Name: (optional)
Email: (required, but will not display; please use the same email address when downloading another publication so that the profile questions will not appear)
Age:
Gender:
If Prefer to self-describe, please specify:
Level of Education:
Occupation:
If employed either part-time or full-time, name of office:
If others, (Please specify):
Would you like to receive the SERP-P UPDATES e-newsletter? Yes No
Use the space below if you have any comment about this publication or SERP-P knowledge resources in general.