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Philippines environment monitor 2005 : coastal and marine resource management

This publication, the sixth in the Philippines Environment Monitor (PEM) series, focuses on coastal and marine management.Previous reports presented and updated trends in the state of the environment (2000 and 2004), solid waste management (2001), air quality (2002), and water quality (2003). This edition highlights the degradation and loss of coral reefs, mangroves, and sea grasses. Only 4 to 5 percent of coral reefs are in excellent condition; more than 70 percent of the mangrove forests have been converted to aquaculture, logged, or reclaimed for other uses; and half of all sea-grass beds have either been lost or are severely degraded. Beaches and seashores have come under pressure from rapid population growth and uncontrolled development. One of the consequences of this coastal degradation is the decline in fisheries catch-per-unit effort. In addition, the fisheries industry and ecosystems are suffering from overexploitation, destructive fishing practices, and corruption. While existing laws and regulations provide a basic framework for coastal management, in practice coastal management has been inefficient and piecemeal. This report finds that improved public participation in coastal law enforcement and heightened national awareness of the state of these resources are crucial in improving management. Implementation of the proposed Integrated Coastal Resources Management Plan would also go a long way in reversing coastal degradation. This publication is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction to the Philippines' coastal and marine resources; (2) Status and economic significance; (3) Pressures on ecosystems and resources; (4) Links to local livelihoods; (5) Legislation, institutions and policies; and (6) Key challenges ahead.


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