This study analyzes the longer-term "lock-in" effects of time-critical program inputs on education and health outcomes for specific cohorts of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (Pantawid) beneficiaries. The cohorts are known to benefit more from inputs received at critical points, particularly in their first 1000 days of life and from the age-appropriate start of schooling. The data, collected from November to December 2017, covered 2,265 households with children born between April 2009 and April 2013 from the original treatment and control barangays of the first impact evaluation of the program that used Randomized Control Trial design. Children and mothers in the original treatment areas are presumed to have received program benefits during the critical period while children and mothers in the control areas are presumed to have received benefits beyond the critical period. Results show that timely exposure to Pantawid inputs during the first 1000 days of life results in a lower prevalence of severe underweightedness, diarrhea, and fever among children. Positive program impact was observed for the age of start of schooling (Grade 1) and the cumulative number of years of delay in schooling. However, these results were not consistently observed in other estimations that control for confounding variables. The small impact of the program on level progression in primary school suggests that the control group was able to catch up with their counterparts in the treatment group. In general, the results of the study highlight the importance of providing program inputs together with a comprehensive package of supplementary interventions during the first 1000 days of life to achieve significant results in health and nutrition outcomes of children. Misconceptions on the start of schooling must also be addressed to ensure that children start school on time and avoid delays in progression through grade levels.
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