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Publication Detail
CLSU 2000-03: Towards Strengthening the Philippine Carabao Center’s (PCC) Crossbreeding Program: An Evaluation of Outcomes

This research was conducted to determine the outcomes of the PCC’s crossbreeding program in its six original satellite centers, i.e. Cagayan State University, Central Luzon State University, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Central Mindanao University, La Carlota Stock Farm and Ubay Stock Farm. The PCC crossbreeding program was instrumental in carabao upgrading as evidenced by the number of buffaloes born or produced. Majority of the respondents produced 1–4 buffaloes (average of 2.67) with few other producing 5–10 heads since they have been involved in the program. Almost all of the respondents valued the efforts made by the PCC in general, and the PCC technicians in particular, in carabao upgrading through artificial insemination. While the PCC satellite centers made linkages with government agencies (i.e. Provincial Veterinary Office) in undertaking AI activities, almost all of the respondents preferred the PCC technicians to do the AI for them, an indication of the trust and confidence of the beneficiaries on the technicians’ competence in undertaking the AI. This is also reflective of the inspiring commitment exhibited by the PCC technicians in the performance of their duties and responsibilities. This however, also reflects the need for the upgrading of skills of the technicians from GOs to become more effective in servicing the intended beneficiaries and to be able to reach out more beneficiaries. Except for the selling of carabao, carabao-based enterprise development was almost non-existent among beneficiaries and the communities served by the center. This can be attributed to the very little or no effort at all by the satellite centers to pursue carabao-based enterprise development which may have prevented the beneficiaries to take greater interest in milk processing and candy making, to name a few. One possible reason for this is the fact that there were no direct linkages with the market and processing sectors to pursue such kind of enterprise. It can be further explained by the limited / few numbers of carabaos owned per beneficiary which may not be practical to venture into an economically viable carabao-based enterprise. In addition, the respondents indicated socio-cultural perceptions and reasons like: family members were not used to drinking fresh carabao milk; the milk produced should be for the consumption of the calves only; if continuous milking was done, the female carabao becomes weak and loses weight; they were too busy with lots of work that they could no longer do milking / processing; lack of knowledge in milk processing; and the aggressive / untamed nature of buffaloes. Perceived contributions of income generated from the sale of carabaos were positive, i.e. used for education of children; medical purposes; construction / repair of house; purchase of household appliances / farm implements and used for daily needs. Other contributions include the respondents’ more positive belief in carabao production and upgrading. The general level of adaptability and sustainability of the crossbreeding program was generally found to be positive as perceived by a majority of the beneficiaries who availed and continued to be involved in the program; the involvement of more beneficiaries in the community; the interest generated from potential beneficiaries; and the kind of support generated from local institutions like the barangay council and other associations in the study areas. The general level of institutional development however, was low or negative as no carabao-based organization was either initiated or formed in the study areas. The observed environmental impacts include sustained use of draft carabao in farming activities like plowing, harrowing, hauling, etc; and use by some of carabao manure as fertilizer. By implementing the PCC Crossbreeding Program, the PCC made significant outcomes in terms of carabao upgrading and propagating and promoting the carabao as a source of draft animal power. Contributions as enumerated by the respondents were also significant as the income generated from carabao production helped them meet their needs. Results were found wanting however, in terms of increasing carabao population, cooperative organization and carabao-based enterprise development.

Central Luzon State University
Authors Keywords
Antalan, Rodolfo Jr., V.; Paderes, Aurora S.; Porciuncula, Fe L.; Trimor, Belen P.; carabao farming; cross breeding;
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