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Publication Detail
ISPPS WP 2002-04: Accelerating the Flow of Livestock Vaccine from the Laboratory to the Farm

Technology produced is deemed useless unless transferred to the intended user. In the livestock sector, transfer of vaccines to the final users is necessary to prevent occurrence of economically important diseases. Eradication of these animal diseases is expected to increase farm productivity. Phase I of this study analyzed policies in the transfer and commercialization of animal vaccines, particularly for hemorrhagic septicemia (HS), infectious coryza (IC), and fowl cholera (FC). An ex-ante assessment on the economic viability of each of these vaccines at the farm level along with their acceptability and potential for adoption was already undertaken. One of the notable findings of the phase I study is the wide margin between vaccine supply and animal population which is indicative of a promising market potential for these vaccines. This study (phase II) identifies and describes the extension strategies used by government institutions in promoting the use of livestock vaccines as well as their transfer or distribution from the laboratory to the farm. Similarly, recommendations to further improve extension and distribution strategies for livestock vaccines from the laboratory to the farm are presented. Selection of survey areas, which included Cebu for Region 7, Bukidnon for Region 10, Batangas for Region 4, Pangasinan and Ilocos Sur for Region 1, and Pampanga and Nueva Ecija for Region 3, was based on the inventory of animals and the incidence of animal diseases, particularly Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS), Infectious Coryza (IC) and Fowl Cholera (FC). The government agencies tasked to effect the transfer of vaccines and dissemination of information on the technology are the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI), the Regional Animal Diagnostic and Disease Laboratories (RADDLs), the Provincial Veterinarian’s Offices (PVOs), the City Veterinarian’s Offices (CVOs) and the Municipal Agriculturist Offices (MAOs). Hence, respondents were composed of the head of the RADDLs, the provincial veterinarians, city veterinarians, city/municipal agriculturists, and agricultural extension workers. A number of farmer leaders in the survey areas were also interviewed to complete the players in the vaccine extension system. Survey data pertaining to extension gathered during phase I of study were also utilized. Variables looked into consisted of government extension programs/strategies for animal vaccine, route traversed by BAI-produced animal vaccine, problems encountered in the implementation of extension strategies by government institutions, and suggestions and recommendations of those involved in extension activities to improve the animal vaccine extension system. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the distribution system vis-a-vis vaccines’ adequacy, reach, and sustainability of supply was determined. Aspects such as the organizational structure, capability of extension personnel, physical resources as well as transport facilities of LGU extension units were also looked into. In addition, ways of motivating raisers to use vaccines (government institutions) and information needs of extensionists and farmer-raisers, feedback mechanisms from vaccine users were also looked into. Based on the considered criteria on the effectiveness of the extension strategies, it can be concluded that the current system of livestock vaccine distribution is effective since it facilitates movement of vaccines to the target clients. As to the extension strategies, these are also effective since raisers are adopting the technology and it has actually reduced the occurrence of economically important animal diseases. Therefore, it is recommended that the current mechanism for animal vaccine extension be continued or pushed through. However, modifications are suggested to enhance the effectiveness and sustainability of vaccine extension strategy. Given the government resources/inputs utilized in the implementation of extension strategies and transfer of animal vaccines from the laboratory to the farm, we can say that the goal to reduce occurrence, if not eradicate economically important diseases, e.g. HS, NCD is attained. Decrease in the incidence of animal diseases is an indication of the effectiveness of extension strategies. Since the current strategy being used is considered effective, it is recommended that its implementation be continued but subject to some improvements. Improvements recommended include: extension strategy must focus on substantial number of non-users/adopters and at the same time see to it that raisers continue adopting the technology; utilization of effective channels of extension such as radio, agricultural technicians/extensionists, raisers’ friends and neighbors, local newspapers/comics, kapihan sa barangay/assemblies and film showing; additional trainings for extensionists, animal raisers and local executives on matters pertaining to animal health; and more frequent farm and home visits by extensionists; collaboration/linkage with non-government organizations (NGOs) and vaccine companies; utilization of farmer-leaders and farmer organization, strengthening farmers’ cooperatives/associations as well as people’s organizations. Generally, for new technologies, prospective adopters or users have yet to pass awareness and interest stages of the adoption process. Hence mass methods are more appropriate to capture the innovators or early adopters and majority of target users. For biotechnology products, extension strategy is dependent on the type of product to be promoted since unlike animal vaccines, others are still very ‘new’. Social acceptability must first be ascertained. Thus, strategies are technology-specific. Strategy design must also consider the stages of adoption process and the characteristics of target clients. Therefore, the extension mix must be taken into consideration. Finally, an exhaustive survey or review of extension strategies focusing on various biotechnologies is recommended.

UPLB Center for Strategic Planning and Policy Studies
Authors Keywords
Nguyen, Miriam R.; agricultural technology; agriculture sector; livestock vaccines;
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