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Publication Detail
CHL 1996-46: Effects of Globalization on Child Work in Selected Philippine Industries (Monograph Series No. 5)

While several studies have claimed to have established a link between the child labour issues and globalization, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to point out explicitly if such a linkage exists. Most of the studies rely on documented cases of child work in industries employing subcontracting merely to expose the incidence and the conditions under which the child workers are employed. Hardly are there efforts to concretely examine and evaluate the linkage between child work and the export-oriented strategy. This monograph hopes to address this gap. It is envisioned to determine, through a specialized survey, some empirical evidences that link the export-oriented strategy to the incidence of child work in the country. Specifically, it seeks to determine factors compelling export-oriented establishments to utilize child work and to examine the conditions of child workers in such establishments vis-à-vis those who work for the local market. There are indications from the results of the survey that the country’s export-oriented strategy poses aggravating influence on the increasing incidence of child work, particularly in the garments industry. By providing readily accessible employment opportunities, children from the lower economic strata are enticed to work in the industry. Once engaged, they also find difficulty abandoning work. This somehow supports other studies in the literature which cite the existence of child work in the garment export industry. The linkage can hardly be gleaned in the other industries studied. In the handicrafts industry, child workers are found in both local and export firms. In the footwear industry, on the other hand, hardly are these child workers in the exporting firms. Due to limitations in the sample size and covered industries, however, the indications revealed in the survey are inconclusive and, therefore, should be further explored. The prevalence of children in home-based work is also confirmed, and is further aggravated by the fact that majority are not under the supervision of their parents or guardians. The difficulty of monitoring child work in this sector becomes glaring because of its informal nature. Clearly, these are cases of child labour. The more significant concern, however, may be with regards to the working conditions of children in export-oriented firms. The study reveals that conditions of work seem to be more rigid and harsh in exporting firms than those for the local market. Hours of work are hardly flexible in the former, such that children engaged in work are mostly out-of-school and are full-time on the job. In terms of occupational safety and health hazards, the deterioration of health condition is relatively higher among children in exporting firms. Poverty or financial difficulties as the primary motivation for children to work is also validated by the results of the study. Most of the working children belong to families whose household incomes fall below the national average, even below the poverty threshold.

Collection of Studies from Other Institutions
Authors Keywords
Cabaero, Merle A.; Imperial, Ma. Luisa Gigette S.; child labor;
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Published in 1996 and available for NO PDF AVAILABLE Downloaded 0 times since November 25, 2011
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