DRN 2017 Vol. XXXV No. 1
Women and Children with Disabilities Face Dire Conditions, Study Shows
RPS 2017-01
An Assessment of the Community Mortgage Program Implementation Strategy
DP 2017-19
Rebooting Philippine Telecommunications Through Structural Reform
DP 2017-18
Review of Intra-ASEAN Nontariff Measures on Trade in Goods
Socioeconomic Issues on Spotlight

Gender and Development

Gender issues are a major development concern that constrains human development in all facets of the society. Although the Philippines is one of the first countries in Asia that allowed its women to participate in elections and to assume government positions (ADB 2013), the country still has a lot to confront in terms of bridging the gender gap.

While gender issues do not center on women alone, the increasing involvement of women in politics, business, and academe is one clear indication that opportunities are starting to become unbiased in terms of gender. However, this increase is not enough. For instance, based on the 2015 data of the Philippine Statistics Authority, there is only one woman for every four men elected in government service (i.e., 3,360 women compared to 13,407 men).

Furthermore, in 2014, the share of women in wage employment in the non-agriculture sector is only 41.1 percent--a bit higher than the 1990 baseline (40.1%) but comparatively lower than the 2015 target of 50 percent (PSA 2015). This indicator shows that the fight for gender equality, particularly in the labor force, has only just begun.

Gender equality (i.e., women having the same rights as men) in labor and education is only one issue central to gender and development. Gender issues also include, among others, addressing various conflict and post-conflict situations (Margallo 2005); exposing sexual and physical violence among men and women (PSA 2015); understanding the participation of women in the society, such as in community-based budgeting schemes (Budlender et al. 2006); scrutinizing poverty and disability (Tabuga and Mina 2011); and exploring government initiatives toward gender and development, particularly in public spending in education (Manasan and Villanueva 2005).

Research on gender and development provides a pathway to address many gender-related issues. As this field of study appears to become more interesting for researchers in recent years, relevant recommendations arise, such as the ratification and implementation of international labor standards and national legislations (Edralin 2002), development of an "overarching agriculture strategy for women" (ADB 2013, p. 57), and participation of women on peace panels and/or for them to have a seat at the negotiations table (Margallo 2005).

The SERP-P has a wide collection of studies that relate to gender and development. Some of these studies tackle local issues in the workforce and the perennial disparity in the status of men and women in education, in the government, and in health-related concerns. There are also studies that look at gender issues at the regional level.

DRN 2012 Vol. XXX No. 6  Education for All: Addressing Problems in Primary Schooling
CLSU 2005-05  Development of Gender Training Manual for Development Workers in Crop Animal System
ADB 2000-05  Manila North Tollways Corporation, SIEE
Pids-popcom 2002-0  Population Policy in the Philippines, 1969-2002
31442  Addressing gender in conflict and post-conflict situations in the Philippines
ADB 2002-01  Sociolegal Status of Women in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand
WP 1991-16  Gender Issues in Agrarian Reform and Rural Nonfarm Enterprise
PASCN DP 1999-25  Gender Dimension in APEC
ESIA-WID WP 1983-12  Women and Men in Development: Findings from a Pilot Study
PASCN DP 2001-04  Gender and Technology
RPS 2002-08  Assessing the Situation of Women Working in CALABARZON