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Corporate Governance and Finance in East Asia Volume II(2001). Capulong, Ma. Virginita,. Edwards, David,. Zhuang, Juzhong,. Corporate Governance and Finance in East Asia presents the findings of a regional study of corporate governance and finance in selected developing member countries of ADB. The study attempts to identify the weaknesses in corporate governance and finance in countries most affected by the 1997 Asia...

Rural Road Development Policy Framework(2001). ADB,. The Philippines has nearly 200,000 kilometers (km) of roads. The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) is responsible for 28,000 km, or 14 percent, which are national roads and provide the main trunkline system connecting the major population centers and linking provinces. The remaining 17...

Metro Manila Urban Services Services for the Poor Project(2001). ADB,. Rapid urbanization in the Philippines is seen in the megacity of Metro Manila, a metropolitan area comprising 17 cities and municipalities where the population has increased from under 2.5 million in 1964 to over 12 million in 2000. Metro Manila, growing at 3.3 percent annually, is a major economic ...

Indigenous Peoples / Ethnic Minorities and Poverty Reduction in the Philippines(2002). ADB,. This report outlines the problems in defining indigenous peoples, and gives an overview of indigenous peoples in the Philippines. The law and policy framework is discussed, with a description of the national dimensions of indigenous peoples' poverty. Poverty assessments for the Cordillera and Min...

What Else Besides Growth Matters to Poverty Reduction? Philippines(2002). ADB,. For the most part of the past quarter century, the Philippine economy performed poorly, especially seen against the backdrop of the dynamic East Asian economies. Spurts of growth were often followed by bust and stagnation. Not surprisingly, absolute poverty among a significant proportion of the ...

Capacity Building of the Mindanao Economic Development Council to Enhance Private Sector Activity in the Philippine EAGA(2002). ADB,. Given the major contribution of the private sector to the country’s economic growth, and its contribution to reducing poverty, including in rural areas, the Government places considerable emphasis on supporting private sector development. MEDCo is the designated permanent Philippine Coordinating Off...

Promoting Effective Schooling through Education Decentralization in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Philippines(2002). ADB,. Among developing member countries (DMCs), Indonesia and the Philippines rank fairly high in the distribution of real GDP per capita in PPP dollars while Bangladesh ranks much lower. In terms of aggregate schooling, the Philippines has secondary and tertiary enrollment rates that are substantially...

Support for the Local Governance Performance Measurement System(2002). ADB,. As part of its mandate to formulate and implement national laws, policies and standards concerning local government operations, the Philippine Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) has been working for several years with local governments to develop performance measurement and assess...

Leading Indicators of Business Cycles in Malaysia and the Philippines(2002). ADB,. This paper attempts to construct leading indicator systems for the Malaysian and Philippine economies using publicly available economic and financial data, with a view to predicting turning points of growth cycles in the two countries. The results show that during the sample period of January 198...

Strengthening the Anti-Money Laundering Regime (ACCSF)(2002). ADB,. The need for an effective anti-money laundering regime is crucial and pressing for at least two sets of reasons: (i) Money laundering activities have their origins in graft, corruption, and other forms of criminal activity.4 These activities undermine the Government’s legitimacy as well as inves...

Sociolegal Status of Women in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand(2002). ADB,. Major constraints affect the sociolegal status of women in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand. Improving sociolegal status and legal empowerment of women is important in reducing poverty and improving the quality of life in the Asian and Pacific region. The study recommends a number o...

Diagnostic Study of Accounting and Auditing Practices in the Philippines(2002). ADB,. This report describes accounting and auditing arrangements in Indonesia, identifies deficiencies in those arrangements, and presents recommendations to address those deficiencies. The study revealed a range of issues that need attention if accountancy is to maintain its high status in the Philipp...

Regional Capability Building and Governance for an Expanded Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao(2002). ADB,. The Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) is midway into its fourth administration since being created by Republic Act (RA) 6734 in 1989. The current administration recently released the Regional Executive Agenda for Peace and Development, based on fundamental political, economic, and institut...

Sociolegal Status of Women in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand(2002). ADB,. Are laws the answer to achieving gender equality? What are the complex interactions of civil, religious and customary laws that shape women’s status? What are the ways in which laws reflect and reinforce social and cultural norms and expectations? Will the enactment of laws to protect and promote...

Promotion of a Cleaner Production(2002). ADB,. Cleaner production (CP) is the continuous use of preventive and integrated environmental management strategies related to production processes, services, and products to improve an organization’s profitability as well as to reduce risks to human health and the environment. CP principles are now wide...

Leading Indicators of Business Cycles in Malaysia and the Philippines (No. 32)(2002). Zhuang, Juzhong,. Zhang, Wenda,. This paper attempts to construct leading indicator systems for the Malaysian and Philippine economies using publicly available economic and financial data, with a view to predicting turning points of growth cycles in the two countries. The results show that during the sample period of January 1981-M...

Organizational Development of the Commission on Higher Education(2002). ADB,. The formal education cycle comprises only 10 years of basic education (elementary plus secondary), postbasic education offering nondegree courses of varying lengths, and 4 years of higher education covering degree-granting courses. Almost all elementary education (grades 1– 6) is publicly provided, ...

Metro Manila Solid Waste Management(2002). ADB,. There is an urgent and critical need to address the current SWM situation in Metro Manila. Due to the forced closure of the two primary disposal facilities, the metropolitan area has been without adequate and environmentally safe waste disposal mechanisms. Compounded by weak institutional and techni...

Commercialization of Microfinance: Philippines(2003). ADB,. Commercialization of microfinance is an often-talked about but less well-understood concept. It is increasingly recognized that a commercial approach is necessary to achieve mass outreach in microfinance, not only in the Philippines but elsewhere as well. This report analyzes the progress tow...

Adding Value to Microfinance and to Public Health Education - At the Same Time(2003). Dunford, Christopher,. This article shares evidence that public health and microfinance objectives can be achieved at the same time with the same staff through careful integration of education and financial service delivery. In particular, the article shares results from impact research in Ghana, operations research in th...

Welcare Impacts of Electricity Generation Sector Reform in the Philippines(2003). ADB,. This paper reports an empirical investigation into the welfare impacts of introduction of private sector participation into the Philippine electricity generation sector, through liberalization of the market for independent power producers (IPPs) during the power crisis of 1990-1993. This study us...

Economic Opennes and Regional Development in the Philippines(2003). ADB,. This paper examines how economic openness influences regional development in the Philippines. It first looks at the disparities in economic and social indicators across the country’s 14 regions and over time. Metro Manila continues to tower over the national economic landscape, though economic ...

Promoting Good Governance in the Restructured Power Sector(2003). ADB,. To address the problems facing the Philippine power sector, the Government decided to restructure and privatize the electric power industry. The centerpiece of the restructuring of the power industry was the passage of the Electric Power Industry Reform Act (EPIRA) in June 2001 and promulgation of ...

Economic Openness and Regional Development in the Philippines (No. 34)(2003). ADB,. This paper examines how economic openness influences regional development in the Philippines. It first looks at the disparities in economic and social indicators across the country’s 14 regions and over time. Metro Manila continues to tower over the national economic landscape, though economic disp...

Investing in Ourselves: Giving and Fund Raising in Philippines(2004). ADB,. DECADES OF DEVELOPMENT WORK have revealed the limitations of states and markets in addressing fundamental social issues. This has led to increased recognition of the importance of non-government organizations (NGOs) in the human development process.1 The Philippine NGO community is an example of t...

Commercialization of Microfinance: Perspectives from South and Southeast Asia (2004). Campion, Anita,. Fernando, Nimal A.,. Charitonenko, Stephanie,. The book highlights the different perspectives on commercialization of microfinance, identifies issues and challenges relating to commercialization and recommends approaches to promote the process of commercialization. The book provides excellent insights into the issues of commercialization of micr...

Institutional Strengthening of Energy Regulatory Commission and Privatization of National Power Corporation(2004). ADB,. To sustain progress achieved under the Power Sector Restructuring Program,1 the Government of the Republic of the Philippines requested the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to provide advisory technical assistance (TA) to strengthen the institutional capacity of the newly established Energy Regulatory C...

Development of Basic Education in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao(2004). ADB,. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been supporting the improvement of basic education in Mindanao since the mid-1990s through the ongoing Secondary Education Development and Improvement Project, and studies and other activities to prepare for the proposed Mindanao Basic Education Development Proje...

Strengthening Governance of Securities Trading Markets(2004). ADB,. Sound governance is crucial for capital markets to inspire investor confidence and play an effective role in supporting growth through channeling savings to productive investment. ADB has been active in supporting efforts to strengthen market governance in the Philippines. Previous interventions inc...

Competitiveness, Income Distribution, and Growth in the Philippines: What does the Long-run Evidence Show?(2004). ADB,. This paper considers unit labor costs (ulcs), i.e., the ratio of the wage rate to labor productivity, as the indicator of competitiveness in the Philippines. It is shown that ulcs have an interpretation from the point of view of the functional distribution of income (i.e., the distribution of out...

Anti-Corruption Policies in Asia and the Pacific(2004). ADB,. Anti-Corruption Policies in Asia and the Pacific presents an overview of the main developments in the area of combating corruption in 21 Asian and Pacific countries and territories. The publication is based on information provided by the governments that have endorsed the Anti-Corruption Action Plan...

Strengthening SME Credit Management Systems(2004). ADB,. The Philippine Government has requested the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to provide support for the promotion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), in conjunction with the implementation of the SME Development Plan 2004—2010. The Government considers development of SMEs as central to employment...

Strengthening Provincial and Local Planning and Expenditure Management(2004). ADB,. The Government of the Philippines (the Government), through the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), requested the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to provide an advisory technical assistance (TA) for Strengthening Provincial and Local Planning and Expenditure Management. The TA is inc...

Private Sector Assessment for Philippines(2005). ADB,. ...

Master Plan for the Agusan River Basin(2005). ADB,. During the 2003 country programming mission, the Government of the Republic of the Philippines requested the Asian Develoment Bank (ADB) technical assistance (TA) to prepare a master plan for the Agusan River Basin, following an integrated river basin management (IRBM) approach. The TA Fact-Findi...

Local Government Finance and Budget Reform Project(2005). ADB,. During discussions regarding the 2005 Interim Country Strategy and Program,agreement was reached between the Government of the Philippines and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to proceed with a technical assistance (TA) on strengthening local government finance and budgeting. Follow-up consultation...

Enhancing Access of the Poor to Microfinance Services in Frontier Areas(2005). ADB,. The Government of the Republic of the Philippines has requested technical assistance (TA) from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to increase access and efficiency of microfinance services for the poor in frontier1 areas that have little or no access to formal or semiformal financial services. Micr...

Empirical Assessment of Sustainability and Feasibility of Government Debt: The Philippine Case(2005). ADB,. This paper assesses empirically the sustainability and feasibility of the government debt in the Philippines using the No Ponzi Game criterion. Both historical data and forecasts generated by a quarterly macroeconometric model of the Philippines are used in the assessment. Stochastic simulations ...

A Small Macroeconomic Model of the Philippine Economy(2005). ADB,. This paper describes a small quarterly macroeconometric model of the Philippine economy. The model consists of sectors of private consumption, investment, government, trade, production, prices, money, and labor. The equilibrium-correction form is used for all the behavioral equations. The trackin...

Poverty in the Philippines: Income, Assets, and Access(2005). ADB,. This book examines official income poverty statistics and trends, but then takes a more multidimensional approach in exploring questions of access. The report looks at access by the poor to five important assets: human, physical, natural, social, and financial capital. The framework is built on t...

Converting Migration Drains into Gains(2006). ADB,. Developing country governments and international donors are taking notice of diasporas’ potential contributions to economic development. Attention has primarily focused on the impressive totals of economic remittances, whose global estimates now outpace official development assistance: estimated a...

Macroeconomic Effects of Fiscal Policies: Empirical Evidence from Bangladesh, People's Republic of China, Indonesia and Philippines(2006). ADB,. This paper studies macroeconomic effects of fi scal policies in four Asian countries—Bangladesh, People’s Republic of China, Indonesia, and Philippines—by means of structural macroeconometric model simulations. It is found that shortterm fi scal multipliers from an untargeted increase in go...

Philippines: Performance Measurement at the Local Level(2006). Einsiedel, Nathaniel von,. The report takes a look at the performance indicator systems used by Philippine LGUs upon the adoption of the Local Government of 1991. This paper summarizes the situation of performance measurement at the local level, and analyzes the level of usage and effectiveness of such indicator systems. In a...

Macroeconomic Effects of Fiscal Policies: Empirical Evidence from Bangladesh, People's Republic of China, Indonesia, and Philippines (No. 85)(2006). ADB,. Ducanes, Geoffrey,. Cagas, Marie Anne,. This paper studies macroeconomic effects of fiscal policies in four Asian countries—Bangladesh, People’s Republic of China, Indonesia, and Philippines—by means of structural macroeconometric model simulations. It is found that short term fiscal multipliers from an untargeted increase in government e...

Impact of Microfinance on Rural Households in the Philippines(2007). Kondo, Toshio,. In summary, the microfinance program has kept program clients economically active with more enterprises and more employees. It has also improved consumption smoothing capabilities with lesser dependence on presumably higher priced non-GBA loans and increased savings in both program and non-program M...

Evaluation on the Effect of Microfinance on Poor Rural Households and the Status of Women(2007). ADB,. In 2007, the Operations Evaluation Department in ADB examined how effective ADB's microfinance operations had been in reducing rural poverty and improving the status of women. Bangladesh, the Philippines, and Uzbekistan were selected for in-depth analysis. Comparison groups were used to define count...

Philippines: Critical Development Constraints(2007). ADB,. This report, prepared by the Economics and Research Department, is the first report in the department's Country Diagnostics Studies. It identifies the critical constraints to growth and poverty reduction in the Philippines, and discusses policy options for addressing the constraints. ...

Microfinance, Poor Rural Households, and Women(2007). ADB,. In 2007, the Operations Evaluation Department conducted a Special Evaluation Study on the Effect on Microfinance Operations on Poor Rural Households and the Status of Women to determine how effective its projects had been in reducing rural poverty and improving the status of women; assess the extent...

An Analysis of the Philippine Business Process Outsourcing Industry (No. 93)(2007). ADB,. This paper provides a profile of the Philippine business process outsourcing (BPO) sector; makes country comparisons with India and other BPO providers; and summarizes the results of an input–output analysis of the Philippine BPO industry’s intersectoral linkages and its potential impact on compens...

Maynilad on the Mend(2008). ADB,. Ailing concessionaire Maynilad Water Services, Inc. underwent a successful rebidding process that allowed new owners to take over, in the process paying off the utility's debts and embarking on a P33 billion capital expenditure program for 2007-2015. Know more about the complex process that gave May...

Effectiveness of Public Spending: The Case of Rice Subsidies in the Philippines(2008). Mehta, Aashish,. Jha, Shikha,. In response to the spike in rice prices in 2008, the rice subsidy program budget for the Philippines’s National Food Authority (NFA) was expanded five-fold to 2.5% of gross domestic product. The NFA is the largest recipient of government subsidy, but also the largest loss-making government corporat...

Ex-ante Impact Evaluation of Conditional Cash Transfer Program on School Attendance and Poverty: The Case of the Philippines(2008). Son, Hyun H.,. Florentino, Jhiedon,. This paper provides an ex ante assessment of the implementation of the conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in the Philippines, the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino. The study investigates the impact of CCT on current poverty, and the impact of this extra money on school attendance under different ...

Explaining Growth and Inequality in Factor Income: The Philippines Case(2008). Son, Hyun H.,. This paper analyzes the relationship between growth and inequality of factor income in the Philippines, focusing on the role played by the labor market. It proposes a decomposition methodology that explores linkages between growth in income and labor market performance in terms of labor force par...

Foreign Direct Investment, Innovation, and Exports: Firm-Level Evidence from People’s Republic of China, Thailand, and Philippines (No. 134)(2008). ADB,. This paper examines the links between ownership, innovation, and exports in electronics firms in three late-industrializing developing countries (People’s Republic of China, Thailand, and Philippines), drawing on recent developments in applied international trade and innovation and learning. Techno...

Data Book of Southeast Asian Water Utilities(2008). ADB,. The Data Book for Southeast Asian Water Utilities 2005 follows the earlier data book with 2003 data published by the Southeast Asian Water Utilities Network (SEAWUN) with support from the Asian Development Bank. It is a comprehensive compilation of information on the performance 40 water utilities ...

Has Inflation Hurt the Poor? Regional Analysis in the Philippines (No. 112)(2008). Son, Hyun H.,. This paper measures the impact of price changes on poverty using the Philippines as an example. The impact of price changes is captured by the price elasticity of poverty for three widely used poverty measures, namely, headcount ratio, poverty gap ratio, and severity of poverty. An empirically oper...

Background Note on the Justice Sector of the Philippines(2009). ADB,. This report is part of the efforts of the Asian Development Bank to support justice sector reform. It provides an overview of the sector, identifies key constraints and issues confronting it, and undertakes a preliminary assessment of reform initiatives by justice sector agencies-mainly the judiciar...

The Global Crisis and the Impact on Remittances to Developing Asia (no. 185)(2009). Jha, Shikha,. Sugiyarto, Guntur,. Vargas-Silva, Carlos,. Remittances to Asia plunged during the 1997 Asian financial crisis, but the drop was temporary as the flows were increasing once again after just 1 year. The current crisis, however, is fundamentally different in that even the countries that send remittances have been adversely affected. The global...

Remittances and Household Behavior in the Philippines (No. 188)(2009). Ang, Alvin,. Jha, Shikha,. Sugiyarto, Guntur,. As one of the world’s largest recipients of remittances, the Philippines received remittances roughly 12% of its gross domestic product in 2008. Remittances have become the single most important source of foreign exchange to the economy and a significant source of income for recipient families. Usin...

Explaining Filipino Households' Declining Saving Rate (No. 178) (2009). Terada-Hagiwara, Akiko,. From 1994 to 2006, the average household saving rate in the Philippines declined by 5.2 percentage points to about a mere 5% of disposable income. Using data from income and expenditure survey at the household level, this paper explains why households’ consumption growth had been higher than inc...

How Has Asia Fared in the Global Crisis? A Tale of Three Countries: Republic of Korea, Philippines, and Thailand (No. 174)(2009). Son, Hyun H.,. San Andres, Emmanuel A.,. The global economic crisis in 2008–2009 had varying impacts on economies in Asia and the Pacific. This paper studies the impacts of the global crisis, with emphasis on the labor market, on three Asian countries: Republic of Korea (Korea), Philippines, and Thailand. It develops a crisis index that m...

Equity in Health and Health Care in the Philippines(2009). Son, Hyun H.,. Equity is an abstract concept covering philosophical issues such as fairness and social justice, making its definition and measurement very complex. This study attempts to define and measure equity in health status and health care utilization using the equity index of opportunity. The study intro...

Asian Development Outlook 2009: Rebalancing Asia's Growth(2009). ADB,. The annual Asian Development Outlook provides a comprehensive economic analysis of 45 economies in developing Asia and the Pacific. Based on ADB's unique knowledge of the region, the 21st edition examines trends and prospects in Central Asia, East Asia, Pacific, South Asia, and Southeast Asia in the...

Diagnosing the Philippine Economy Toward Inclusive Growth(2009). ADB,. The pace of growth in the Philippines is slower than that of many neighbouring countries, and despite increasing growth in the period before the current global financial crisis, domestic investment remained weak, and had a declining share in gross domestic product. Understanding limits to growth in ...

Poverty in the Philippines: Causes, Constraints and Opportunities(2009). Aldaba, Fernando T.,. Against the backdrop of the global financial crisis and rising food, fuel, and commodity prices, addressing poverty and inequality in the Philippines remains a challenge. The proportion of households living below the official poverty line has declined slowly and unevenly in the past four decades, an...

Process Map on the Criminal Prosecution of Tax Evasion in the Philippines(2009). Thapan, Arjun,. This report documents the findings of a process mapping exercise aimed at identifying bottlenecks in the prosecution of tax evasion cases. While the exercise was conducted in 2007 and the report presents a snapshot of issues at that time, many of the key challenges identified remain relevant today, ...

Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2009: Enterprises in Asia: Fostering Dynamism in SMEs(2009). ADB,. The Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2009 is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators for regional members of ADB. Data are grou...

How Are Government Hospitals Performing?(2010). PIDS Research Information Staff,. Thant, Mio,. Health care service in the country is designed to be delivered under a referral network. Traditionally, an ordinary citizen would go to a clinic or barangay health unit for his immediate or primary health needs. If his health requirements call for more complicated solutions, then he would be referre...

Asian Development Outlook 2010: Macroeconomic Management Beyond the Crisis(2010). ADB,. Bauer, Armin,. Thant, Mio,. The annual Asian Development Outlook provides a comprehensive analysis of economic performance for the past year and offers forecasts for the next 2 years for the 45 Asian economies that make up developing Asia. This edition sees developing Asia emerging from the recent crisis and posting a stro...

Trade Liberalization and Wage Inequality in the Philippines (no. 195)(2010). Jandoc, Karl Robert L.,. Hasan, Rana,. We examine the role of trade liberalization in accounting for increasing wage inequality in the Philippines from 1994 to 2000—a period over which trade protection declined and inequality increased dramatically. Using the approach of Ferreira, Leite, and Wai-Poi (2007), we find that trade-induced e...

Education Outcomes in the Philippines(2010). Maligalig, Dalisay S.,. Habib, Bilal,. Narayan, Ambar,. Olivieri, Sergio,. Caoli-Rodriguez, Rhona B.,. Martinez, Jr. Arturo,. Cuevas, Sining,. This paper identifies key determinants of individual, school, and quality of education outcomes and examines related policies, strategies, and project intervention to recommend reforms or possible reorientation. Two sets of data were used: (i) data on school resources and outputs from the administra...

How Can Food Subsidies Work Better? Answers from India and the Philippines(2010). Jha, Shikha,. Subramanian, Arvind,. Ramaswami, Bharat,. The study explores the outcomes of food subsidies to the poor in the case of India and the Philippines. Both countries operate in-kind food subsidy programs with similar mandates, commonalities in functioning, and substantial budgetary outlays. The goal of the study is to quantify the gains to the p...

Services Liberalization and Wage Inequality in the Philippines(2010). Amoranto, Glenita V.,. Juco, Marianne,. Mattoo, Aaditya,. Brooks, Douglas H.,. Chun, Natalie,. This paper examines the impact on employment and wages of liberalization in selected services subsectors (banking, distribution, and telecommunications) in the Philippines from 1991 to 2004. On the assumption that value-added effects arise from service liberalization that subsequently increase produ...

Asian Development Outlook 2010: Macroeconomic Management Beyond the Crisis(2010). ADB,.  The annual Asian Development Outlook provides a comprehensive analysis of economic performance for the past year and offers forecasts for the next 2 years for the 45 Asian economies that make up developing Asia. This edition sees developing Asia emerging from the recent crisis and posting a stro...

Knowledge Management on Air Quality: Case Studies(2010). ADB,. When governments develop policies, a major limiting factor is availability of sufficient information. Information often does not reach policy makers at the right time or in the form in which it is needed. Information and communication technology can support policy development processes by improving ...

Searching for Effective Poverty Interventions: Conditional Cash Transfer in the Philippines(2011). Norio Usui,. Conditional cash transfer (CCT), which was initiated in 2007, is becoming a centerpiece of the social protection system in the Philippines. This note reviews economic rationales for transferring a cash grant to the poor contingent on their certain behavior, major challenges in designing a CCT progra...

Transforming the Philippine Economy: "Walking on Two Legs"(2011). Norio Usui,. Norio Usui analyzes the long-term growth of the Philippine economy through the lens of structural transformation to clarify the root causes of the country's lagged growth performance in the regional context. The main culprit behind lagging growth is a chronic productivity growth deficit as a result ...

Tax Reforms toward Fiscal Consolidation: Policy Options for the Government of the Philippines(2011). Norio Usui,. This policy note assesses tax administration measures and tax rate adjustments, two options for the Philippines’ fiscal consolidation in terms of their efficiency for revenue mobilization and impacts on tax equity. ...

Taking the Right Road to Inclusive Growth: Industrial Upgrading and Diversification in the Philippines(2012). Norio Usui,. This report discusses key policy challenges that need to be addressed if the Philippines were to embark on sustainable and inclusive growth. ...

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