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A Short Guide to Philippine Taxes, Revised Edition, 1998. National Tax Research Center,. This publication serves as a guide to a general comprehension of the various Philippine taxes, fees, charges and duties collected by the government at the national and local levels. It also includes information on fiscal incentives, tax administration and research, and statistical data on revenue co...

Assessment of the Fire Code of the Philippines. National Tax Research Center,. The paper evaluates the Fire Code of the Philippines. It also determines the modernization of the fire protection services. the firefighting capabilities as well as the responsibilities of the local government units (LGUs). The Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) was created by virtue of Republic Act...

Comprehensive Index on Taxation in the Philippines, 1998. National Tax Research Center,. This index serves as baseline information for tax administrators, policy-makers/legislators, practitioners and researchers on the various national and local taxes. ...

1996 NTRC Annual Report(1996). National Tax Research Center,. This study covering GOCCs is the second phase of the project study entitled "Gathering of Database and Technical Assistance to All Departments, Bureaus, Offices and Agencies of NG and GOCCs in the Revision of Fees and Charges) undertaken by the NTRC pursuant to EO 159. It consists of the following: ...

Update of Tax Subsidy Granted by the Fiscal Incentives Review Board on Fertilizers Imported Through the Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority (FPA)(1996). National Tax Research Center,. The study examines the tax subsidy to fertilizer importation previously granted by the FIRB through the FPA to determine the extent to which such subsidy is reflected in the prices of fertilizers. It notes that tax subsidy has a minimal impact on fertilizer prices compared to administrative cost and...

Transfer Pricing and Fiscal Incentives: Issues for Coordination and Harmonization(1996). National Tax Research Center,. The study discusses the harmonization and coordination of policies among the ASEAN tax systems relative to transfer pricing issues and fiscal incentive provisions. It notes that prospects of harmonizing and coordinating fiscal incentives and investment laws of the ASEAN members are likely to happen ...

Taxation of Natural Resource-Based Industries (A Backgrounder)(1996). National Tax Research Center,. The paper looks into the tax treatment of the natural resource-based industries (NRBIs) particularly the incentives granted them. It notes that while tax incentives enhanced the growth and development of specific industries under the cluster of NRBIs, these incentives cost the government millions in...

Evaluation of Tax Incentives to Promote Infrastructure Development(1996). National Tax Research Center,. The study assesses the effectiveness of existing incentive laws granted to the private sector to encourage initiatives in infrastructure development namely, EO 226 (Omnibus Investments Code, as amended) and RA 6957 (Build-Operate-Transfer Law, as amended). It looks into the number of private sector ...

Review of the Taxation of Mutual Funds(1996). National Tax Research Center,. The study examines the tax treatment of mutual funds relative to the claim of mutual companies that the present practice of taxing their income constitutes double taxation, ie., at the level of the mutual fund company and its shareholders. Given the significant role of mutual fund companies in the m...

Inventory of Housing Programs and Funding Sources(1996). National Tax Research Center,. The paper presents the various government housing programs and their corresponding sources of funds, the government agencies charged with administering such programs as well as their legal mandates. The inventory serves as an input to a more comprehensive study on the tax treatment and policy concer...

Environmental Protection Policies and Strategies: Land Transport Sector(1997). National Tax Research Center,. The study assesses the existing policies/strategies adopted by the government in addressing vehicular air pollution problems and determines how effective these have been, how they can be improved or complemented by other measures. It notes that the existing command and control (CAC) measures and mar...

A Survey on the Taxing and Other Revenue-Raising Powers of the Local Government, 1997(1997). National Tax Research Center,. The project assesses the impact of the various reforms introduced in the Local Government Code (LGC) on the taxing and other revenue-raising powers of LGUs and on local government finance. It consists of the following phases: (a) assessment of the impact of the changes in the taxing and other revenu...

The Philippine Housing Program: A Study(1997). National Tax Research Center,.  This paper assesses the Philippine Housing Program covering the period 1993-1996. It notes that there is a need for the greater participation of the private sector in resolving the housing crisis especially in the provision of socialized housing. To promote greater participation from the private s...

Study on Incentives for Research and Development Activities(1997). National Tax Research Center,. The paper examines existing incentives for research and development in line with the country's bid for industrialization. It notes that incentives may not be enough to induce R&D activities unless all other factors such as favorable business climate, adequate logistic support, sufficient scientific ...

Tax Performance Analysis - National Government, 1995-1996(1997). National Tax Research Center,. The paper evaluates the tax performance of the National Government (NG) in 1995 and 1996. It notes that the National Government's tax collection increased by 18.3% from P313.1 billion in 1995 billion to P370.2 billion in 1997. Direct taxes' 22.4% growth outperformed indirect taxes' 15.8%. Furthermor...

Review of Various Legislative Franchises Granted After the Effectivity of EO 72(1997). National Tax Research Center,. The paper reviews the tax provisions of special laws granting franchises to different types of utilities which were enacted after EO 72. It notes that the imposition of uniform franchise tax rates on the basis of the nature of the business under EO 72 is not strictly adhered to. In order to adhere t...

Examination of Additional Deduction of 50% of the Total Cost of Development Training for Labor and Management(1997). National Tax Research Center,. The paper evaluates Section 42 of RA 7916, otherwise known as the Special Economic Zone Act of 1995, providing for additional deduction equivalent to one-half percent of the value of training expenses incurred by enterprises in the economic zones. It notes that the additional deduction of 50% of the...

Profile Study of the Electric Cooperatives Benefitted by Tax Subsidy Granted by the Fiscal Incentives Review Board(1997). National Tax Research Center,. The paper examines the effectiveness of tax subsidy provisions granted to electric cooperatives (ECs) through the National Electrification Administration (NEA). It notes that the provision of subsidy enables NEA to continue granting commodity loans to ECs; undertake various programs involving line u...

Profile Study of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Commissary & Exchange Service and the Philippine National Police Service Stores System(1997). National Tax Research Center,. The paper looks into the profile of the AFP commissary stores and the PNP service stores benefited by tax subsidy and evaluates the effects of said subsidy on the operational efficiency of commissary outlets and service stores to their intended beneficiaries. It finds that the continuing grant of ta...

Impact of the Comprehensive Tax Reform Package on Compensation Income Earners(1998). National Tax Research Center,. The paper measures the impact of RA 8424 (Tax Reform Act of 1997) on compensation income earners. The study reveals that the tax rate schedule of 5%-34% for individual income earners under the CTRP is less progressive than the previous 0%-35% tax rate schedule (compensation income) and that of 3%-30...

Survey on the System of Implementation and Effectiveness of the Tax and Duty Privileges Granted to Special Economic Zones, 1998(1998). National Tax Research Center,. The study assesses the effectiveness of the tax and duty privileges granted to specific economic zones (ECOZONES) in the country. It consists of the following: (a) examination of the effectiveness of the tax and duty privileges granted to ECOZONE enterprises in encouraging investments and other bene...

Fiscal Incentives to Promote Private Financing of Infrastructure Projects(1998). National Tax Research Center,. The paper determines the extent of financing requirements of infrastructure projects and the fiscal incentives available to the private sector to enable it to generate said financing requirements in case it decides to pursue infrastructure projects. It notes that since the financing requirement need...

The Life and Non-Life Insurance Companies: An Industry Profile(1998). National Tax Research Center,. The paper evaluates the present taxes available to the life and non-life insurance industry and the proposals seeking the abolition of said taxes. It notes that the abolition of the premium tax, VAT and the DST is not appropriate in view of the government's financial difficulties. It recommends, amo...

Tax Subsidy to Philippine Specialized Hospitals(1998). National Tax Research Center,. The study evaluates the impact of the performance/operations of four specialized hospitals, namely, Lung Center of the Philippines, National Kidney and Transplant Institute, Philippine Children's Medical Center and the Philippine Heart Center relative to health/medical services. The study determines...

Highlights of Economic Indicators, CY 1997(1998). National Tax Research Center,. The paper presents the highlights of selected economic indicators for CY 1997. Among others, it notes that in 1997 the Philippine economy grew despite the currency crisis that befell the Asian region in the latter half of the year. ...

Tax Performance Analysis of the National Government, CY 1996-1997(1998). National Tax Research Center,. The paper evaluates the tax performance of the National Government (NG) during CY 1996-1997. It notes that despite a P35 billion shortfall, the National Government's tax collection increased by 12% from P370.2 billion in 1996 to P414.6 billion in 1997. Total collections from direct taxes reached P17...

Basic Information on VAT, 1998(1998). National Tax Research Center,. This primer provides basic information on VAT as implemented in the Philippines. Among the information provided in the primer are the rate of VAT and its taxable base; goods and services exempt from VAT; and VAT requirements. ...

Comparative Tax Effort of the LGUs Prior to and Under the LGC(1998). National Tax Research Center,. The paper measures and compares the tax effort indices of local government units prior to and under the Local Government Code (1987-1991 and 1992-1996, respectively) with respect to major tax sources i.e., real property tax (RPT) and business taxes and licenses (BTL). It shows that the overall actua...

Graduating Government-Owned and Controlled Corporations from the Coverage of Tax Subsidy Provisions Administered by the FIRB(1998). National Tax Research Center,. The study assesses the importance of granting tax subsidies to GOCCs. It notes that the phasing out of tax subsidy of GOCCs will only serve as a further argument for the grant of tax exemptions. It also cites alternative recourses to phasing out tax subsidy such as cutting back tax subsidy and impos...

Matrix of Franchise Laws, 1998(1999). National Tax Research Center,. The paper presents a list of franchise laws enacted in 1998. It notes that in 1998 there were 87 franchises granted in the areas of domestic/international air transport services, cable/satellite system, local exchange network, radio paging system, racetrack, wire/wireless telecommunications system, ...

Update of Statistical Data on the Real Property Tax and Internal Revenue Allotment(1999). National Tax Research Center,. The paper presents an update of statistical data on the real property tax and internal revenue allotment. It notes that from 1991 to 1997 real property tax registered an average annual growth rate of 15.84%, with a collection efficiency of 42.79%. On the other hand, internal revenue allotment grew f...

Present Tax Treatment of Certain Gambling and Gaming Activities(1999). National Tax Research Center,. The study re-examines the tax treatment of certain gambling activities, such as casino gambling and bingo games, lotto, horse-racing, jai-alai and cockfighting to determine whether there is a need to revise their tax treatment for equity purposes and to look into the possibility of raising more reve...

Study on the Philippine Automotive Parts Industry(1999). National Tax Research Center,. The paper presents the profile and the problems of the Philippine automotive parts industry viz.: (a) little difference between prices of locally manufactured parts and imported parts (b) preference for imported parts; (c) scrapping of the local content requirement in the year 2000; (d) dominance of...

Assessment of Laws on Fiscal Incentives(1999). National Tax Research Center,. The paper presents an assessment of legislation/issuances on fiscal incentives issued in 1998 to determine their effects on the concerned sectors and revenue-generation of the government. These legislation/issuances include RA 8479 (Deregulating the Downstream Oil Industry); RA 8492 (Establishing a ...

NFA's Price Stabilization Mandate(1999). National Tax Research Center,. The study reviews the National Food Authority's (NFA) price stabilization mandate in the light of certain developments like the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade - World Trade Organization (GATT-WTO) under which the Philippine government is a signatory, and the Asian financial crisis. It notes ...

Estimation of the Income Tax Gap for 1995-1997(1999). National Tax Research Center,. The paper estimates the income tax gap (individual and corporate) for 1995 to 1997 using the gap approach. It shows that as a percent of potential tax revenue, the estimated income tax gap for compensation income from 1995 to 1997 stood at 16.3%, 10.6% and 7.5%, respectively. On the other hand, the ...

Compendium on National Taxes, Fees and Charges Imposed on Selected Sectors(1999). National Tax Research Center,. The compendium provides an outline of taxes, fees and charges imposed on the following sectors: Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry Sector; Construction Industry; Education Sector; Electricity, Gas and Water Sector; Financial Sector; Fishing Industry; Health and Social Work Sector; Hotel and Restauran...

Historical Development of the Tax on Income of Individuals and Corporations, 1939-1998(1999). National Tax Research Center,. The compendium provides an outline of taxes, fees and charges imposed on the following sectors: Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry Sector; Construction Industry; Education Sector; Electricity, Gas and Water Sector; Financial Sector; Fishing Industry; Health and Social Work Sector; Hotel and Restauran...

Elasticity of Demand for Petroleum Products, 1991-1998(2000). National Tax Research Center,. The paper estimates the price and income elasticity of consumer demand for petroleum products. It finds that the changes in income influence demand for all selected petroleum products. On the other hand, except for avturbo and kerosene, price changes have minimal impact on the demand for the rest of...

Trends in Income and Expenditure of LGUs, CYs 1992-1998(2000). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents the sources of revenues of LGUs and shows how these resources are apportioned to the different programs/functions and services covering the period 1992 to 1998. It notes that while the bulk of LGUs' income is geared towards spending for general public services, the heavy allocatio...

Tax Performance Analysis of the National Government(2000). National Tax Research Center,. The paper evaluates the tax performance of the National Government (NG) during CY 1995-1999. It notes that total national government revenues substantially increased from P361.9 billion in 1995 to P478.2 billion in 1999 posting an average growth of 7.4% annually. The tax effort which registered posi...

Comparative Tax Sources of Selected Asian Countries, 1992-1997(2000). National Tax Research Center,. The paper presents and compares the different tax sources of six selected Asian countries, namely: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Korea and the Philippines from 1992 to 1997. It observes that the total revenues of said Asian countries registered positive growth from 1992 to 1997. It notes...

Gender Bias in the Income Tax Provisions of the National Internal Revenue Code of 1997(2000). National Tax Research Center,. The paper identifies the specific NIRC provisions on income tax which are gender-biased. To make the NIRC gender-neutral, it proposes the undertaking of a more comprehensive review of existing provisions of the NIRC of 1997 to identify other gender-biased provisions; use of both masculine and femini...

Evaluation of the Impact of Tax Subsidy in the Operations of the Home Development Mutual Fund (HDMF)(2000). National Tax Research Center,. The paper evaluates the impact of tax subsidy on the operations of the HDMF. It notes that the grant of tax subsidy to the HDMF enables it to continuously sustain the government's shelter financing program and enhance the Fund's capacity to comply with its obligations to its members. On the other ha...

Primer on Exciseable Articles(2000). National Tax Research Center,. This primer provides basic information on goods/articles subject to excise tax under Philippine revenue laws. These goods/articles include alcohol products; tobacco products; petroleum products; mineral products; automobiles; and non-essential goods. Among the information provided in the primer are ...

Update on the Tax Privilege of Government-Owned and/or Controlled Corporations(2000). National Tax Research Center,. The paper presents an update of the status of the tax exemption privileges of GOCCs to serve as a guideline to concerned authorities and as a basis for further reforms in the government corporate sector. It notes that GOCCs currently enjoying tax exemption privileges may be categorized into those gr...

Evaluation of the Rice Research Program of the Philippines Rice Research Institute(2000). National Tax Research Center,. The study examines the effects of tax subsidy on the rice research program of the PhilRice in the light of its availment of tax subsidies pursuant to EO 93 (issued December 17, 1986, effective March 10, 1987). It notes that since 1997 PhilRice has not been granted any tax subsidy to cover tax and du...

Tax Performance Analysis of the National Government, CY 1998-1999(2000). National Tax Research Center,. The paper evaluates the tax performance of the National Government (NG) during CY 1998-1999. It notes that the National Government's revenue effort of 15.2% decreased by 8.1% from the previous year's 16.6%. The ratio of total tax revenues to GNP of 13.7% likewise declined by 7.8% from 14.9%. It rema...

Issues on the Taxation of Internet Transactions(2000). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents the relevant issues on taxation of Internet transactions. Among the issues tackled are those pertaining to (1) income tax; (2) transfer pricing; (3) indirect tax; (4) withholding tax; and (5) tax administration and collection. It notes that while RA 8792 (the Electronic Commerce A...

Recent Developments in Investment Incentives in Selected Asian Countries(2000). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents the current trends in investment incentives in selected Asian countries, namely, Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, People's Republic of China and South Korea, to determine the direction of the grant of incentives in terms of the type and benefic...

Evaluation of the Capital Equipment Incentive under Executive Order No. 226(2001). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents the developments on capital equipment incentives under EO 226, otherwise known as the “Omnibus Investments Code of 1987”, their implications, as well as the effectiveness of these incentives in influencing investment decisions. It notes that while capital equipment and other ince...

Bouyancy and Elasticity of Philippine Taxes, CY 1990-1999(2001). National Tax Research Center,. This paper measures the responsiveness of the different types of taxes and of the tax system as a whole to changes in income and to discretionary changes from 1990 to 1999. It finds that most of the direct taxes have high elasticity while most of the indirect taxes have low elasticity. It recommends...

Tax Subsidy as an Instrument of Fiscal Discipline(2001). National Tax Research Center,. The study examines the impact of tax subsidy on fiscal discipline with the end in view of enabling the government to formulate the appropriate policies to improve its effectiveness. It recommends measures to promote further tax subsidy as an instrument of fiscal discipline. ...

Guide for Filing Individual Income Tax Returns(2001). National Tax Research Center,. This guide provides basic information in filing individual income tax returns. It provides step by step guide to accomplishing BIR Forms (1700 and 1701) used in filing individual income tax returns. ...

Analysis of the Bureau of Customs Collection, 1991-2000(2002). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents the collection performance of the Bureau of Customs (BOC) during the period 1991-2000. It notes that the BOC remains the second largest tax contributor to the government coffers, contributing on the average 27.8% of the national government (NG) tax revenue from 1991 to 2000. Howe...

Analysis of Regional Internal Revenue Collections, 1999-2001(2002). National Tax Research Center,. The study updates an earlier NTRC study re Analysis of the Regional Internal Revenue Collections, CY 1995-1999 for the period 1999 to 2001 to provide a basis for the formulation of effective regional policies and programs by economic planners, fiscal policy-makers and tax administrators. It notes t...

Basic Facts and Figures on Excise Taxes, 2002(2002). National Tax Research Center,. This compendium presents some basic information on excise taxes. More specifically, it covers the various excise taxes legislation from 1980 to 2001, excise tax collections from the major exciseable products, their corresponding growth rates and ratio to total internal revenue taxes, gross domestic...

Anti-Corruption Measures in Tax Administration(2002). National Tax Research Center,. The study discusses problem of corruption in government and outlines several strategies to curb corruption, particularly in tax administration. It points out that among the causes of corruption are: low salaries of civil servants; ample opportunities for corruption; and low risk of detection and pu...

Privatization Practices in Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand: A Comparative Framework(2002). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents the privatization practices in the Philippines, Malaysia and Thailand. It notes that the Asia-Pacific experience redefined the concept of privatization from its traditional approach, confined to the narrow realm of sale of public enterprises, to one whose enlarged scope encompass...

Elasticity of Demand for Beer, CY 1991-2002(2003). National Tax Research Center,. The study estimates the income and price elasticities of demand for beer or the sensitivity of consumer demand to changes in income and prices, respectively, from 1991 to 1996 for the ad valorem tax (AVT) regime and 1997 to 2002 for the specific tax (SPT) regime. It discovers that the income elasti...

Various Statistical Data, 2003(2003). National Tax Research Center,. This is a collection of different statistics on tax and customs collection; fiscal incentives; fees and charges; and selected economic indicators; among others....

Elasticity of Demand for Petroleum Products, CY 1999-2002(2003). National Tax Research Center,. The study measures the degree of responsiveness of consumer’s demand for petroleum products to changes in income and price. It notes that the demand for unleaded gasoline was not solely influenced by changes in price and income but dictated by the implementation of EO 446 which mandated the use of ...

Evaluation of the Tax Incentives Available to Export-Oriented Industries(2003). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents the tax incentives available to export-oriented industries under various laws such as RA 7844, EO 226, as amended, otherwise known as the “Omnibus Investments Code of 1987”, among others. It also assesses the impact of the tax incentives on Philippine exports. Among others, it no...

Elasticity of Demand for Cigarettes(2004). National Tax Research Center,. The study measures the degree of responsiveness of consumer’s demand for cigarettes to changes in income and price. Excise tax collection from cigarettes continuously grew from P17.41 billion in 2000 to P19.87 billion in 2002 but slightly dropped to P19.68 billion in 2003. Specifically, excise t...

Utilization of the Public Auction of Real Properties as a Tool for Tax Enforcement: The Quezon City Experience(2004). National Tax Research Center,. The study looks into the experience of Quezon City in the conduct of public auction of delinquent real properties to determine its effectiveness as a tool in improving real property tax compliance. Public auction of real property is one of the remedies provided in the LGC which can be used by the...

Tax Expenditure: Concept and Practices(2004). National Tax Research Center,. The study discusses the concept of and practices relating to tax expenditure. It states that tax expenditures are concessions that fall outside of or are departures from the normal tax structure designed to favor a particular industry, activity or class or persons. They include permanent exclusions ...

Trends in Organization and Management Reforms for Tax Administration Among Selected Tax Authorities in Asia(2004). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents and evaluates the practices and recent trends in organization and management reforms for tax administration among selected Asian countries such as the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Hongkong, China, Korea and Japan. It also discusses the different organiza...

Evaluation of Real Property Tax Amnesty: A Case Study of Caloocan City(2004). National Tax Research Center,. The study evaluates the effectiveness of the RPT amnesty granted by the City of Caloocan by comparing the collection from the tax amnesty with the cumulative delinquent RPT for the current and previous years beginning 1995 to 1998; analyzing the collection efficiency during and after the grant of th...

Development of E-Commerce in the Philippines: Implications on the Indirect Tax System(2004). National Tax Research Center,. The study looks into the development of electronic commerce (e-commerce) in the Philippines, identifies the problems associated with the taxation of e-commerce transactions and the impact of e-commerce on indirect taxes (VAT). The widespread use of the Internet in the Philippines and the enactment o...

Tax Expenditure: Concept and Practices(2004). National Tax Research Center,. The study discusses the concept of and practices relating to tax expenditure. It states that tax expenditures are concessions that fall outside of or are departures from the normal tax structure designed to favor a particular industry, activity or class or persons. They include permanent exclusions...

Theories and Principles of Real Property Incidence(2004). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents and discusses the different practices and views relating to property incidence. The practices presented include the annual value, market value and site value systems. The four economic views viz. orthodox view, new view, new orthodoxy and benefit view are also discussed. It not...

Incentives for Necessary Infrastructure and Major Public Facilities(2004). National Tax Research Center,. The study looks into the provision of incentives for infrastructure projects undertaken by BOI-registered enterprises located in a less developed area (LDA) such as full deductibility from taxable income of the amount spent on necessary and major infrastructure works under Article 40(b) of EO 226; (...

Assessment of the Amusement Tax(2004). National Tax Research Center,. The study re-examines Section 125 of the NIRC of 1997 which imposes amusement taxes on the proprietors, lessees or operators of cockpits, cabarets, night or day clubs, boxing exhibitions, professional basketball games, jai-alai and racetracks, to determine whether or not there is a need to introduce...

Review of the Capital Gains Tax on the Sale, Exchange or Other Disposition of Real Properties(2005). National Tax Research Center,. The study discusses the concept, background, structural changes of the Capital Gains Tax (CGT) and the problems besetting its implementation and recommends measures that will make the CGT a viable source of revenue for the government. The study, however, is limited to the taxation of capital gains...

Study on the Tax Avoidance and Evasion Schemes on the Transfer of Real Properties(2005). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents the different modes of transferring real properties and their respective tax treatment and identifies tax avoidance and evasion schemes employed by taxpayers and recommends measures to address these problems and possible ways to make the system more equitable. The study enumer...

Profile of Large Taxpayers: CY 2003, May-June 2005(2005). National Tax Research Center,. The paper is an update of the earlier NTRC study entitled, Profile of Large Taxpayers in the Philippines: 2003. Among others, it presents the profile of large taxpayers in the country and reviews the 2003 revenue performance of the BIRďż˝s Large Taxpayers Service (LTS). Since its creation in 199...

Implications of Section 270 of the Local Government Code Re: Periods Within Which to Collect Real Property Taxes(2005). National Tax Research Center,. The study looks into the implication of the prescription period in the collection of the real property tax (RPT) as provided under Section 270 of the Local Government Code (LGC). It has been noted that the provision on the prescriptive period under Section 270 has never been operational in mo...

Feasibility of Replacing the Current Flat Tax in Corporations With Graduated Income Tax Rates(2005). National Tax Research Center,. The paper looks into the feasibility of replacing the current flat tax on corporations with progressive or graduated income tax rates to further strengthen and enhance the revenue productivity of the Corporate Income Tax (CIT). As a backgrounder, the study provides a brief history of the CIT and ex...

Developments in Technical Cooperation and Knowledge Partnerships on Taxation in Asia(2005). National Tax Research Center,. This study presents the various developments in establishing technical cooperation and forming knowledge partnerships on taxation in Asia. Likewise, it discusses the role of knowledge partnerships towards developing tax policy and tax administration in the region. For the Philippines which is ...

Tax Treatment of Dual Citizens Under Republic Act No. 9225 (Citizenship Retention and Reacquisition Act of 2003 or Dual Citizenship Law)(2005). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents an overview of RA 9225 and discusses the issues on the tax treatment of dual citizens, specifically the provisions of the RP-US Tax Treaty as the United States hosts the most number of Filipino emigrants. Dual/multiple citizenship involves the simultaneous holding of more th...

Revenue Performance of the Land Transportation Office (LTO): CY 1994-2003(2005). National Tax Research Center,. The paper analyzes the revenue performance of the LTO during the period 1994 ďż˝ 2003. Aside from the major collectors of the government, namely the Bureau of Internal Revenue and the Bureau of Customs, the Land Transportation Office (LTO) is one of the agencies that contribute substantially to ...

Income Tax Treatment of Subsidiaries and Branch Offices(2005). National Tax Research Center,. The study looks into the income tax treatment of subsidiaries and branch offices in the Philippines as well as the issues arising therefrom as a basis for prospective tax policy reforms on the matter. A subsidiary is a company controlled by another, usually by a large corporation. It is a dis...

Buoyancy and Income Elasticity of Real Property Tax(2006). National Tax Research Center,. The paper assesses the responsiveness of the real property tax (RPT) to the increases in assessed value from 1995 – 2004. Ideally, an expansion in the tax base should result in the growth of revenue. The results of the study may serve as inputs to policy makers in considering tax proposals that...

Estimate of the Individual Income Tax Gap(2006). National Tax Research Center,. he individual income tax gap or leakage from 2001 to 2005 averaged P 35.74 billion annually. Of this amount, P 9.65 billion or 27% came from compensation income earners while P 26.09 billion or 73% came from professionals and self-employed individuals. Relative to the average potent...

Review of Section 237 of the NIRC(2006). National Tax Research Center,. This paper looks into the problems and issues relative to the issuance of receipts or sales or commercial invoices as a mandatory requirement under Section 237 of the National Internal Revenue Code (NIRC) and attempts to suggest some solutions to these problems. Proper and strict implementation...

Progressivity of the Individual Income Tax Rate Structure of Selected ASEAN Countries(2006). National Tax Research Center,. The study compares and analyzes the degree of progressivity of the individual income tax structures of members of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Tax progressivity is typically linked to a tax schedule characterized by a rising rate as income rises. In particular, the tax stru...

Fiscal Incentives in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Region(2006). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents the fiscal incentives offered by the 10 ASEAN member countries (Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) to investments in domestic and foreign industries in view of their relative regional homogeneity. ...

Concept Paper on the Application of a Flat Tax on Income(2006). National Tax Research Center,. The study looks into the advantages and disadvantages of a flat rate tax on all levels of individual income. Among the advantages of a flat tax structure, are: (a) simplicity; (b) reduced compliance costs and increased compliance rates due to the uniformity of marginal tax rates; (c) inflat...

The Proposed Bank Debit Tax(2006). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents the advantages and disadvantages of introducing a Bank Debit Tax (BDT) as a temporary and quickest possible means of generating revenue for the government. The proposed BDT shall be imposed once the National Government (NG) deficit reaches 3.5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) fo...

Real Property Tax Gap: An Update(2006). National Tax Research Center,. The study estimates the basic Real Property Tax (RPT) gap from 1993 to 2004 per level of local government unit (LGU). The RPT gap is the aggregate amount of uncollected real property tax for the current and previous year. On the average, LGUs registered an overall collection efficiency (CE) o...

Duty Free Stores(2007). National Tax Research Center,. The paper provides background information on the operational aspects of duty free stores (DFS) in the Philippines. It also identifies certain loopholes and abuses arising from the operations of DFS and recommends steps which should be effectively and efficiently implemented to address such loopho...

Tax Treatment of Certain Real Property Transactions Under the NIRC of 1997(2007). National Tax Research Center,. The study provides brief information on the tax treatment of certain real property transactions for purposes of facilitating their registration with the Register of Deeds and the Assessor’s Office of local government units. A final tax of six percent (6%) based on the gross selling price or curre...

Analysis of the Revenue Performance of the Vat on Real Property, CYs 2001-2005(2007). National Tax Research Center,. The study reviews the revenue performance of the VAT on real property imposed by LGUs from 2001 up to 2005. For the period 2001-2005, VAT collection on real property transactions inclusive of sale and lease of real properties, amounted to P15.19 billion with an average annual collection of P3.0...

Analysis of the Revenue Performance of Local Taxes on Real Properties, CYs 2001-2005(2007). National Tax Research Center,. The study reviews the revenue performance of taxes on real property imposed by local government units (LGUs) from 2001 to 2005. It looks into the productivity of the revenue sources of LGUs over the last five years as they strive to become self-reliant and financially stable communities. Presen...

Taxation of Tobacco Products in ASEAN Countries, November-December 2007(2007). National Tax Research Center,. The study presents the taxation of tobacco products in the ASEAN region which could be generally classified as ad valorem tax (AVT), specific tax and mixed structure of ad valorem and specific. Among the ASEAN countries, five impose the ad valorem excise tax with Laos and Myanmar imposing a si...

Survey of Business Taxes Imposed By ASEAN Countries, September-October 2007(2007). National Tax Research Center,. The paper discusses the business taxes imposed by the ASEAN countries. Among the ten member-countries of the ASEAN, five countries are imposing the VAT. With the recent abolition of the highest 20% VAT rate for Vietnam, the Philippines now has the highest standard VAT rate of 12%. In the case of...

Summary Significant Features of the Income Tax Structure Among ASEAN Member Countries(2007). National Tax Research Center,. The paper discusses the significant features of the income tax structure among ASEAN member countries. Among the 10 ASEAN countries, Brunei is the only one which does not impose an individual income tax. The income tax structures of the nine members of the ASEAN are schedular. Myanmar has the mos...

Background on the Community Tax, May-June 2007(2007). National Tax Research Center,. The paper discusses the basic data and information on the Community Tax (or Residence Tax). The Community Tax (or Residence Tax) was originally known as the cedula personal. Its enactment was the result of a reform decree abolishing the tribute. During the Spanish era, all residents above eigh...

Revenue Performance of Local Governments, CYs 2003 - 2007, November-December 2008(2008). National Tax Research Center,. The study reviews the revenue performance of local government units (LGUs) from CYs 2003 – 2007 and the extent of utilization of their taxing and revenue raising powers to serve as baseline to any proposed policy reforms in the area of local government finance. Local government revenues are der...

The Impact of Internal Revenue Allotment on Philippine Provinces, November-December 2008(2008). National Tax Research Center,. The study focuses on the IRA in the Philippines and its impact on the behavior of provinces in general. Specifically, this paper aims to determine the existence of the “flypaper effect” on the spending behavior of provinces. This flypaper effect is an empirical phenomenon which literally means m...

Property Tax Compliance and Distributional Impact Study on Naga City, September - October 2008(2008). National Tax Research Center,. The Property Tax Compliance and Distributional Impact Study on Naga City covering CY 2007 was undertaken in house by NTRC. The study aims to: 1. Assess compliance in the payment of property taxes under the present system to serve as baseline for assessment of LGU property tax reforms; 2. E...

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